There is a lot of focus on an ageing society as a result of falling birth rates and longer lives. But this demographic transition is increasingly becoming a longevity transition with the majority of life expectancy gains in high income countries now coming in later years. Past improvements in health and life expectancy have been good for the economy and we need the same to happen with this longevity transition. That requires achieving a three dimensional longevity dividend whereby healthy life expectancy rises to match life expectancy and productive ability helps support longer careers needed to finance longer lives. The background to this longevity transition and what is needed to achieve a three dimensional longevity dividend are the subject of the paper just published in Nature Aging.